Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism

The Nazi party rally grounds (German: Reichsparteitagsgelände, Literally: Reich Party Congress Grounds) covered about 11 square kilometres in the southeast of Nuremberg, Germany. Six Nazi party rallies were held there between and

Chapter 4 The Domain of Aten. As Odin travels north to settle in the Nordic countries , he establishes the royal families ruling in Denmark , Sweden and Norway at the time:. The foundation stone was laid in , but the building remained unfinished and without a roof. University Press Scholarship Online.

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Akhenaten is one of the most intriguing rulers of ancient Egypt, and one of the most fascinating individuals from the ancient world. His odd appearance in representations that he commissioned and his preoccupation with worshiping the sun-disc, or Aten, have stimulated a vast amount of academic discussion and controversy for more than a .

Couldn't this be the very spot? The stream is lovely, pure and clear: No, it is two or three hundred yards farther downstream, where one crosses to get to the district of Arga. I think there is even an altar to Boreas there. I hadn't noticed it. But tell me, Socrates, in the name of Zeus, do you really believe that legend is true? Actually, it would not be out of place for me to reject it, as our intellectuals do. I could then tell a clever story: I could claim that a gust of the North Wind blew her over the rocks where she was playing with Pharmaceia; and once she was killed that way people said she had been carried off by Boreas Socrates illustrates a euhemeristic approach to the myth of Boreas abducting Orithyia.

He shows how the story of Boreas, the northern wind, can be rationalised: Orithyia is pushed off the rock cliffs through the equation of Boreas with a natural gust of wind, which accepts Orithyia as a historical personage. But here he also implies that this is equivalent to rejecting the myth. Socrates, despite holding some euhemeristic views, mocked the concept that all myths could be rationalized, noting that the mythical creatures of "absurd forms" such as Centaurs and the Chimera could not easily be explained.

In the ancient skeptic philosophical tradition of Theodorus of Cyrene and the Cyrenaics , Euhemerus forged a new method of interpretation for the contemporary religious beliefs.

Though his work is lost, the reputation of Euhemerus was that he believed that much of Greek mythology could be interpreted as natural or historical events subsequently given supernatural characteristics through retelling.

Subsequently Euhemerus was considered to be an atheist by his opponents, most notably Callimachus. Euhemerus' views were rooted in the deification of men, usually kings, into gods through apotheosis.

In numerous cultures, kings were exalted or venerated into the status of divine beings and worshipped after their death, or sometimes even while they ruled. Dion , the tyrant ruler of Syracuse , was deified while he was alive and modern scholars consider his apotheosis to have influenced Euhemerus' views on the origin of all gods. Euhemerus argued that Zeus was a mortal king who died on Crete , and that his tomb could still be found there with the inscription bearing his name.

For this reason, the Cretans were often considered atheists , and Epimenides called them all liars see Epimenides paradox. Callimachus , an opponent of Euhemerus' views on mythology , argued that Zeus' Cretan tomb was fabricated, and that he was eternal:.

But you did not die, for you are eternal. A later Latin scholium on the Hymns of Callimachus attempted to account for the tomb of Zeus. According to the scholium, the original tomb inscription read: This had misled the Cretans into thinking that Zeus had died and was buried there. Influenced by Euhemerus, Porphyry in the 3rd century AD claimed that Pythagoras had discovered the tomb of Zeus on Crete and written on the tomb's surface an inscription reading: Hostile to paganism, the early Christians, such as the Church Fathers , embraced euhemerism in attempt to undermine the validity of pagan gods.

The Wisdom of Solomon , a deuterocanonical book , has a passage, Wisdom The early Christian apologists deployed the euhemerist argument to support their position that pagan mythology was merely an aggregate of fables of human invention. Cyprian , a North African convert to Christianity, wrote a short essay De idolorum vanitate "On the Vanity of Idols" in AD that assumes the euhemeristic rationale as though it needed no demonstration.

That those are no gods whom the common people worship, is known from this: Thence temples were founded to them; thence images were sculptured to retain the countenances of the deceased by the likeness; and men sacrificed victims, and celebrated festal days, by way of giving them honour.

Thence to posterity those rites became sacred, which at first had been adopted as a consolation. Cyprian proceeds directly to examples, the apotheosis of Melicertes and Leucothea ; "The Castors [i. Castor and Pollux ] die by turns, that they may live," a reference to the daily sharing back and forth of their immortality by the Heavenly Twins.

In his exposition, it is to Cyprian's argument to marginalize the syncretism of pagan belief, in order to emphasize the individual variety of local deities:.

From this the religion of the gods is variously changed among individual nations and provinces, inasmuch as no one god is worshipped by all, but by each one the worship of its own ancestors is kept peculiar.

Isidore of Seville , compiler of the most influential early medieval encyclopedia, devoted a chapter De diis gentium [17] to elucidating, with numerous examples and elaborated genealogies of gods, the principle drawn from Lactantius , Quos pagani deos asserunt, homines olim fuisse produntur. Isidore's euhemeristic bent was codified in a rigid parallel with sacred history in Petrus Comestor 's appendix to his much translated Historia scholastica written ca.

In his view the Greek gods were deified descendants of Noah who were once real personages. And had captured the purpose for Euhemerism, which was to explain the mundane origins of the Hellenistic divinities. Euhemerism explained simply in two ways: The principal sources of these views are the handed-down accounts of Lactantius and Diodorus; or second, in the widest sense, as a rationalist movement which sought to explain the mundane origins of all the Hellenistic gods and heroes as mortals.

An examination of the principal writings in Middle English with considerable reading of literature other than English, discloses the fact that the people of the Middle Ages rarely regarded the so-called gods as mere figments of the imagination but rather believed that they were or had been real beings, sometimes possessing actual power.

Price supported the Christ myth theory and suggested that the process of searching for a historical Jesus was like euhemerism.

It was inaugurated in , before the Hitler era during the Weimar Republic. All fourteen pylons remain virtually intact and have not been ignited since the final Nazi party rally in September Originally the hall was to be a memorial site for the 9, soldiers from Nuremberg who had fallen in World War I.

During the Party Congress of the then unfinished "Hall of Honour" was used for the enactment of a cult of the dead by the National Socialists for the first time. Hitler, accompanied by SS-leader Heinrich Himmler and SA-leader Viktor Lutze, strode through the arena over the meters long granite path from the main grandstand to the terrace of the Ehrenhalle and showed the Nazi salute there.

The ritual was the climax of the celebration. Opposite the "Ehrenhalle" the crescent-shaped "Ehrentribüne" literally: This structure, built by architect Albert Speer , could seat dignitaries and represented the first permanent structure built by the Nazis in Nuremberg.

The "Ehrenhalle" and the "Ehrentribüne" were connected by a wide granite path. Dating back to the Bavarian Exposition, the former machine hall was renovated and first used by the Nazis for the party convention party congress of Its monumental neo classic facade featured a shell limestone facing with three enormous entrance portals.

It was in this building during the party congress of , that the Nuremberg laws were adapted which deprived German Jews and other minorities of their citizenship. The structure was severely damaged by allied bombs in early and a few years later replaced by a parking lot. The granite staircase leading to the building remains intact today. The Congress Hall Kongresshalle is the biggest preserved national socialist monumental building and is landmarked. It was planned by the Nuremberg architects Ludwig and Franz Ruff.

It was intended to serve as a congress centre for the NSDAP with a self-supporting roof and would have provided 50, seats. It was located on the shore of and in the pond Dutzendteich and marked the entrance of the rally grounds. The building is mostly built out of clinker with a facade of granite panels. The design especially the outer facade, among other features is inspired by the Colosseum in Rome. The foundation stone was laid in , but the building remained unfinished and without a roof.

The building with an outline of an "U" ends with two head-buildings. Since , the Dokumentationszentrum Reichsparteitagsgelände Documentation Center Nazi Party Rally Grounds , with the permanent exhibition Faszination und Gewalt Fascination and Terror , has been located in the northern wing.

Documentation Center; with its "glass and steel arrow", piercing the north wing, the Documentation Center is supposed to be a widely visible architectural counterpoint. It was intended to be the central axis of the site and a parade road for the Wehrmacht.

In its northwestern prolongation the road points towards Nuremberg Castle. This was to create a relation between the role of Nuremberg during the Third Reich and its role during medieval times.

The road reached from the Congress Hall to the Märzfeld, the construction work started in and was finished in it has never been used as a parade road, as due to the beginning of World War II , the last rally was held in The pavement was made of granite pavers in black and gray with edges of exactly 1.

A representative entrance portal and two pylons were planned at the northwestern end of the Great Road.

Near the entrance area of the German Stadion a grandstand with a hall of pillars was planned for the government leaders and generals which were to take the salute on Wehrmacht formations which were to march in direction of the parade ground Märzfeld. After the war, the road was used as a temporary airfield for the US Army. Nowadays, it is used by the nearby Nuremberg fair and exhibition company as an occasional parking area for highly frequented fairs. The Zeppelinfeld in English: Zeppelin Field is located east of the Great Road.

It consists of a large grandstand Zeppelinhaupttribüne with a width of metres yards and a smaller stand. The name "Zeppelinfeld" or "Zeppelinwiese" refers to the fact that in August Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin landed with one of his airships LZ6 in this location. In the s, the pillars were removed for safety reasons. Years of neglect had taken their toll. The rest of the stand is intact and used as the centerpiece of the Norisring motor racing track. The German leg of the traveling heavy metal festival Monsters of Rock was held here twice during the s.

The field has also been used by the Nuremberg Rams American Football team.

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