Antarctic Peninsula


However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. During this climatic cooling, the Antarctic Peninsula was probably the last region of Antarctica to have been fully glaciated.

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Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor. Use Neosporin Ophthalmic Solution neomycin, polymyxin B, and gramicidin as ordered by your doctor.

Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely. Dosage Information in more detail. Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:.

All drugs may cause side effects. The landscape of the peninsula is typical Antarctic tundra. The peninsula has a sharp elevation gradient, with glaciers flowing into the Larsen Ice Shelf , which experienced significant breakup in The Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf lies to the east of the peninsula.

Islands along the peninsula are mostly ice-covered and connected to the land by pack ice. The Lemaire Channel is a popular destination for tourist cruise ships that visit Antarctica. Further to the west lies the Bellingshausen Sea and in the north is the Scotia Sea.

The Antarctic Peninsula and Cape Horn create a funneling effect, which channels the winds into the relatively narrow Drake Passage. Near the tip at Hope Bay is Sheppard Point. The part of the peninsula extending northeastwards from a line connecting Cape Kater to Cape Longing is called the Trinity Peninsula.

Brown Bluff is a rare tuya and Sheppard Nunatak is found here also. On the east coast is the Athene Glacier ; the Arctowski and Akerlundh Nunataks are both just off the east coast. Also located here are the Scaife Mountains. The Eternity Range is found in the middle of the peninsula. Other geographical features include Avery Plateau , the twin towers of Una's Peaks. Because the Antarctic Peninsula, which reaches north of the Antarctic Circle , is the most northerly part of Antarctica, it has the mildest climates within this continent.

The colder temperatures of the southeast, Weddell Sea side, of the Antarctic Peninsula are reflected in the persistence of ice shelves that cling to the eastern side. Precipitation varies greatly within the Antarctic Peninsula. A good portion of this precipitation falls as rain during the summer, on two-thirds of the days of the year, and with little seasonal variation in amounts. Because of issues concerning global climate change, the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent parts of the Weddell Sea and its Pacific continental shelf have been the subject of intensive geologic, paleontologic, and paleoclimatic research by interdisciplinary and multinational groups over the last several decades.

The combined study of the glaciology of its ice sheet and the paleontology , sedimentology , stratigraphy , structural geology , and volcanology of glacial and nonglacial deposits of the Antarctic Peninsula has allowed the reconstruction of the paleoclimatology and prehistoric ice sheet fluctuation of it for over the last million years.

This research shows the dramatic changes in climate, which have occurred within this region after it reached its approximate position within the Antarctic Circle during the Cretaceous Period. The Fossil Bluff Group , which outcrops within Alexander Island , provides a detailed record, which includes paleosols and fossil plants, of Middle Cretaceous Albian terrestrial climates.

The sediments that form the Fossil Bluff Group accumulated within a volcanic island arc , which now forms the bedrock backbone of the Antarctic Peninsula, in prehistoric floodplains and deltas and offshore as submarine fans and other marine sediments.

As reflected in the plant fossils, paleosols, and climate models, the climate was warm, humid, and seasonally dry. According to climate models, the summers were dry and winters were wet. The rivers were perennial and subject to intermittent flooding as the result of heavy rainfall. Warm high-latitude climates reached a peak during the mid-Late Cretaceous Cretaceous Thermal Maximum. Plant fossils found within the Late Cretaceous Coniacian and Santonian -early Campanian strata of the Hidden Lake and Santa Maria formations, which outcrop within James Ross , Seymour , and adjacent islands, indicate that this emergent volcanic island arc enjoyed warm temperate or subtropical climates with adequate moisture for growth and without extended periods of below freezing winter temperatures.

After the peak warmth of the Cretaceous thermal maximum the climate, both regionally and globally, appears to have cooled as seen in the Antarctic fossil wood record. Later, warm high-latitude climates returned to the Antarctic Peninsula region during the Paleocene and early Eocene as reflected in fossil plants. Abundant plant and marine fossils from Paleogene marine sediments that outcrop on Seymour Island indicate the presence of cool and moist, high-latitudes environment during the early Eocene.

Detailed studies of the paleontology, sedimentology, and stratigraphy of glacial and nonglacial deposits within the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent parts of the Weddell Sea and its Pacific continental shelf have found that it has become progressively glaciated as the climate of Antarctica dramatically and progressively cooled during the last 37 million years.

This progressive cooling was contemporaneous with a reduction in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. During this climatic cooling, the Antarctic Peninsula was probably the last region of Antarctica to have been fully glaciated. The transition from temperate, alpine glaciation to a dynamic ice sheet occurred about At this time, the Antarctic Peninsula formed as the bedrock islands underlying it were overridden and joined together by an ice sheet in the early Pliocene about 5.

During the Quaternary period, the size of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has fluctuated in response to glacial—interglacial cycles. During glacial epochs, this ice sheet was significantly thicker than it is currently and extended to the edge of the continental shelves.

During interglacial epochs, the West Antarctica Ice Sheet was thinner than during glacial epochs and its margins lay significantly inland of the continental margins. During the Last Glacial Maximum , about 20, to 18, years ago, the ice sheet covering the Antarctic Peninsula was significantly thicker than it is now.

Except for a few isolated nunataks , the Antarctic Peninsula and its associated islands were completely buried by the ice sheet. In addition, the ice sheet extended past the present shoreline onto the Pacific outer continental shelf and completely filled the Weddell Sea up to the continental margin with grounded ice.

The deglaciation of the Antarctic Peninsula largely occurred between 18, and 6, years ago as an interglacial climate was established in the region. It initially started about 18, to 14, years ago with retreat of the ice sheet from the Pacific outer continental shelf and the continental margin within the Weddell Sea.

Within the Weddell Sea, the transition from grounded ice to a floating ice shelf occurred about 10, years ago. The deglaciation of some locations within the Antarctic Peninsula continued until 4, to 3, years ago.

Within the Antarctic Peninsula, an interglacial climatic optimum occurred about 3, to 5, years ago. After the climate optimum, a distinct climate cooling, which lasted until historic times, occurred. The Antarctic Peninsula is a part of the world that is experiencing extraordinary warming.

The coasts of the peninsula have the mildest climate in Antarctica and moss and lichen -covered rocks are free of snow during the summer months, although the weather is still intensely cold and the growing season very short.

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